Issued 1990. Producers and end users of mechanical fasteners have both felt it necessary over the years to adopt abbreviations for their own application on drawings, orders, invoices, stock lists, and other records. The standardization and implementation of such abbreviations serves to prevent confusion in procurement functions while reducing production costs. This Manual of Terminology and Abbreviations for order-entry and in-plant use by both fastener manufacturers and end users expands/updates earlier versions developed by the Industrial Fasteners Institute. This new edition by no means covers the complete universe of fastener “linguistics,”. . .only a basic listing of standard terms, some specials, along with descriptive call-outs for raw materials, platings and popular manufacturing processes. Representatives of industry are encouraged to submit to the IFI additional nomenclature suited for inclusion in future revisions of this Manual.